CGI in movies – How does it work?


As a self confessed movie buff and technology geek, my interest in films and technology go hand in hand.  CGI (Computer Generated Integration) now comes as standard in a lot of mainstream film and TV.  From visual effects such as sunlight coming through a window to large scale planetary destruction or a giant monster, computer graphics are used extensively to replicate or contribute to visual imagery not to mention video games, printed media and many more types of art in media.

How does it work?

Another way of explaining CGI is 3D computer graphics being used to create images or visual effects.  Sophisticated computer software is used to create the computer generated imagery, moving or static.  We've seen over the past 20 years, pretty much anything can be done using CGI and doesn't necessarily have to obey the laws of physics.
CGI used in visual effects is designed to present high quality images that couldn't be achieved with miniature models or large set pieces, plus it's alot cheaper.  Scenes with crowds, weather conditions, lighting changes, animals, building destruction and so on can be crated at a fraction of the cost.  
Make-up and prosthetics can also be replaced using varying levels of CGI.
CGI animation is a completely different concept to CGI in film and TV although the two are often categorised as the same thing.  CGI animation refers to the method of creating moving animated images.  2D animation is still widely used (cartoons as we know them) and has been around since the start of the 20th Century.  Computer animation was the advancement to cartoons in this medium to stop-motion where 3D models or miniatures are filmed frame by frame to create live action.
The game changer in animated films came in 1995 when Pixar Animation studios produced TOY STORY.  
This was the first computer generated feature-length animated movie.  


At the same time, the computer gaming industry's quality of graphics in real-time have advanced massively  with virtual lighting, camera angles, imagery of facial features, skin, hair, water, fabric and so on have advanced to the point it's getting difficult to tell what is real and what is CGI.
Staying with CGI in movies, the spectacle factor is still impressive even if sometimes the visuals are the main selling point at the cost of an actual story, decent script and characters.  It has been said that mainstream cinema now tend to overuse CGI taking away the substance and sometimes leaving the audience a bit flat with very little emotional impact.  A bit like unwrapping a present with shiny paper and finding an empty box.
Anyway, who cares, I'm a big fan of CGI and the hours and hours of work that go into the art form.
So, as an early Christmas gift to myself, here is a top ten ranking of the best CGI movies to date.  Spectacle and all!  These movies have been  ranked as those that have set the bar when it comes to technology advancement and visual effects through CGI. 
There are lots of rankings out there but this is a top ten I actually agree with.
So here we go.....




9. Pirates of the Caribbean: Dean Man’s Chest (2006)


8. The Abyss (1989)


7. Tron (1982)


6. Terminator 2: Judgement Day (1991)



5. The Matrix (1999)


4. The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002)


3. Avatar (2009)



2. Jurassic Park (1993)



and at number one...........................

1. Star Wars (1977)

picture: www.trekbbs

And while we’re on a roll, here is a top ten in ranked order of the best CGI animated movies.  Plus my kids would never forgive me if I didn't add this in.

This is according to a site call and another one I tend to agree with amongst the vast amounts of opinions and rankings out on the internet.

So with contributions mainly from Pixar...

10. Wreck-It Ralph (2012)


9. Ice Age (2002)


8. Toy Story 3 (2010)


7. The Incredibles (2004)


6. Wall-E (2008)


5. Monsters Inc (2001)


4. Up (2009)


3. Finding Nemo (2003)



2. Shrek (2001)


1. Toy Story (1995)


Eventually, I would imagine the human eye won't be able to tell whether images in TV, film or gaming are computer generated or actual real life footage.  As the audience we naturally expect more as we are given more.
Since the first CGI was used in a feature film in 1971, right up to present day, there will always need for something new to impress the audience and as the technology advances, this demand will no doubt continue to be met.
What are your top 10 CGI movies (live action or animated)?  Don’t just take my word or my research’s word for it.
I’d love you hear your comments or opinion on this.  Leave a Comment or email me direct on the contract page.
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ANDROID – A Guided Tour

Unless you have an iPhone or an iPad, your smartphone or tablet these days is likely to be running on an Android mobile operating system.

So, what is it then?

Developed and owned by Google, Android is a very popular mobile device operating system designed mainly for touchscreen mobile devices.  They were also the first developers to champion user interface direct manipulation (a bit of a mouth full).  In other words, touch gestures like swiping, tapping and pinching to manipulate objects on the screen.

The operating system software version updates are released under code names in alphabetical order.  The in-joke theme is that they are named after confectionary or deserts.  Coming up with the next name in the series must by no end of fun for those wild and crazy guys at Google (spot the sarcasm?).


The table below summarises Android’s operating system versions to date.  Each release will have included new features, improvements and fixes to software bugs or other issues.


Code Name


Version number

Release Date

[no code name]



Petit Four



Cup Cake







2.0 - 2.1



2.2 - 2.2.3



2.3 - 2.3.7



3.0 - 3.2.6


Ice Cream Sandwich

4.0  - 4..0.4


Jelly Bean

4.1 – 4.3.1


Kit Kat

4.4 – 4.4.4



5.0 – 5.1.1



6.0 – 6.0.1



7.0 – 7.1.2





Some of Android's Past Tasty Treats

In 2010 Google released their Nexus series of devices mainly aimed at the tablet market.  This played a big part in Android’s software releases going forward and the concept of removing unwanted applications and software from the device that unintentionally slows it down (bloat-ware).


The latest version release - 8.0 “Oreo” named after the much-loved chocolate wafer biscuit with a marshmallow filling, recently went on release in August 2017.  This update includes a few new features including improved start-up speed and picture-in-picture (PIP) multitasking.  This allows your device to run two apps at once such as a video call with a movie in the background for example.  

There are plenty more new features too, details of which can be found here.


Android Facts, Figures and Dates

·       Google acquired Android in 2005

·       Android Inc produced the first Android device in 2008

·       In 2010 Android represented 10% of the worldwide smartphone market

·       In 2015 Android operating system market share was reported to have risen to 76%

·       Android has been the best-selling operating system for tablets since 2013

·       Google Play store features over 2.7 Million apps as of Feb2017

·       Boasts 2 Billion monthly active users as of May 2017

·       Has the largest installed base of any operating system (an installed base is a measure of products and service in-use at a given time.  In this case, mobile devices and software) estimated as 1.7 Billion worldwide


Google release their Android software under what’s called open source licencing.  This is when the original blueprint and designs for the software’s source code is made freely available and can be modified and shared under defined terms and conditions (at least that’s what Wikipedia says).  It’s basically a way of opening the door to bright minded developers.


A bit like a car manufacturer saying “Hey car mechanics, here’s a copy of one of our new motor engines.  If you’re clever enough, come and have go at making it better and more efficient.  If it’s any good, we might just use yours when we next develop the real thing.”


Android phones and smartphones quickly built a reputation for being powerful, high spec and good at running multiple and varied applications as opposed to the iPhone series which are locked down solely for use with Apple products and usually higher in price.

Here’s a list of the best-selling Android Smartphones currently on the market as of June 2017:

*For a more details on each phone, this information came from the Recombu website which can be reached here.














So, in summary, Android’s mobile operating system now dominates the market at 51% with Apple iOS not far behind at 42.4%.  Whichever camp you are in, the build quality, design and performance of Android powered mobiles devices (smartphones and tablets mainly) will only increase.  Interesting that the split between Android and Apple is so close.  Proof that Apple are still ahead when it comes to quality and build design hence their loyal army of users and popularity stays strong. 

 I have Apple products in the house and probably always will. However, when it comes to smartphones, I have to say it’s Android for me. 





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MUSIC STREAMING is here to stay!

The music streaming age is already here!  Or at least it is if you have a stable internet connection or phone signal.

I’m a big fan of music streaming and the fact we’re almost completely done with physical media as in CDs.  In my day, we listened to vinyl records, then cassette tapes, then compact disks (CD’s) as well as the radio.   

Can’t believe I just said, ‘in my day’. 

On demand multi-media streaming first came about in the early 1990’s and mainly provided video and live streaming of video-on-demand before audio started to take off. 

Today, using a media player, application or a web browser, streaming music content is now a part of everyday life online. 

We are able to listen to streamed music on mobile devices or through a PC or laptop – at home, on a train, in the car and so on.  When you stream a track or album, you in are effect borrowing it without having to purchase it. 

To briefly explain how it works, Streaming is a continuous flow of data or media (music or video) to a computer or device without saving/downloading it.  Whereas downloading of data is where the data or media is saved to the machine and stored on the hard drive.

The idea is that streamed data is compressed and takes up as little internet bandwidth as possible.  It’s all about speed and if you have a fast internet connection, the streaming rate will be quicker and therefore will use less of your internet bandwidth and data allowance.

There are plenty of music streaming services to choose from, most of which are free.  

As always on Digital Speak, I try to pull out the best of the bunch to show some of what’s out there to help people make the right choice.

Here is a list of the most popular music streaming services around at the moment.


This is the number one music streaming service (app).  High quality and subtle, its popularity seems to go from strength to strength.  Founded in 2006 in Sweden, this streaming service allows you to browse through multiple catalogues of licenced music backed by record labels.   In July 2017 it was reported to have 140 million active users worldwide and 60 million paying subscribers.  And yes, I use this one.


What you get?

Price: Free (with adverts) or £9.99 a month (no adverts and offline listening)

Tracks: Access to over 30 million and it suggests playlists based on your previous music preferences

Desktop Version: Windows, MacOS, Linux, web version (in other words just use it in a web browser)

Mobile version:  Android, iOS, Windows phone


Apple are the market leader in technical innovation and great build design when it comes to their products.  Apple Music appeared in 2011 and had its share of problems with software bugs and its overriding dependency on iTunes.  iTunes is Apple’s famous media player/media library/radio broadcaster/device management application.  In September 2017, Apple Music was reported to have 30 million active users worldwide and 60 million paying subscribers.

What you get?

Price: £9.99 a month or £14.99 family plan for up to 6 users

Tracks: Access to over 30 million with a very human interactive feel to music preferences and suggested tracks.

Desktop Version: MacOS, Windows (both through iTunes)

Mobile version:  iOS, Android


This service is promoted as having high fidelity and lossless audio quality.  Founded in 2014 and bought out in 2015 by American rapper and businessman, Shawn Corey Carter or JAY-Z to his friends.  Yes JAY-Z!  Marketed as the first artist owned streaming service and the goal to return the value of proposition to music.  It’s all about the music baby!  The subscription fees are higher which is supposed to help the upcoming artists and songwriters.

What you get?

Price: £9.99 a month or £8.49 a month for a 6-month pre-pay

Tracks: Access to over 48.5 million and 175,00 high definition music videos.  Big on discovering new talent in the music business.  High quality audio and HI-FI clarity that the other steaming services haven’t tapped into just yet.

Desktop Version: OS X, Windows

Mobile version:  Android, iOS


 Music and podcast streaming service operated by....yes you’ve guessed it, Google.  Developed in 2011 and launched as Google Music then rebranded as Google Play Music in 2012.  Based on Google's global reach through Play Store, this music streaming service is reported as having well over 600 million active users worldwide.

What you get?

Price: Free. All access paid-for version allows for 6 accounts for £14.99

Tracks: Access to over 40 million and used across 5 Android devices.  Storage of 50,000 tracks.

Desktop Version: Windows

Mobile version:  Android, iOS


Lesser known than the likes of Spotify and Apple Music although associated with the big music labels including EMI, Sony, Universal Music Group and Warner Music Group.  Created in Paris in 2006.

Reported to have 16 million monthly active users worldwide and 6 million paying subscribers.

What you get?

Price: £9.99 a month or higher for different tiers of content

Tracks: Access to over 40 million.  High quality audio and varied catalogue

Desktop Version: OS X, Windows

Mobile version:  Android, iOS

There are plenty more too.  Available in other countries and globally.  So, if you ever find yourself in a different part of the world and the hotel Wi-fi is up to it, here’s a list of the many other music streaming services available across the globe.


·       8tracks (USA & Canada)

·       Amazon Prime Music (Global)

·       Amazon Music Unlimited (Global)

·       Anaghami (Arabic countries)

·       Arena Music (UK)

·       Batanga (USA, Latin America)

·       Electric Jukebox (UK)

·       Earbits (Global)

·       Hoopla (USE & Canada)

·       iHeartRadio (USA, Australia, New Zealand)

·       Jango (global)

·       Joox (Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand)

·       Line Music (Japan, Thailand)

·       Musicovery (Global)

·       Napster (USA & Europe)

·       NetEase cloud Music (China)

·       Patari (USA)

·       Pandora (USA)

·       Qobuz (France, UK, Netherlands & Germany)

· (USA)

·       Saavn (Global)

·       Slacker (USA & Canada)

·       SoundCloud (Global)

·       Yandex Music (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan)

·       YouTube Red (USA, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, South Korea)

I told you there were loads of other music streaming services (at the time of writing) but lots also come and go.  So whether you're streaming over an internet connection, 4G phone signal, listening offline or purchasing the music to keep, this type of content has grown massively and is definitely here to stay.


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Ransomware – Explained!

There’s been a lot of coverage in the news of the steady increase in cyber-crime and Ransomware attacks in the UK when the NHS came under attack back in March and more recently again in August in Scotland.

The Wannacry cyber-attack earlier this year was a form of Ransomware which impacted over 200,000 organisations in countries all over the world including 47 NHS Trusts in England and Telefonica, the telecommunications company, in Spain. 

This cyber-attack used out of date Microsoft software as a vulnerability and is reported to have originated from the NSA (National Security Agency) in the states.  How dodgy is that?

Bitpaymer was another variant of Ransomware which recently attacked the Scottish Health Board in August affecting patient appointments and medical records.

In June, Petya malware, yet another form of Ransomware affected larger businesses and organisations across the world mainly in the Ukraine as well as Germany, Italy, France, USA and UK.  Petya malware first appeared in 2016 and is a suite or family or encrypting ransomware programs that targets also Windows based systems. 

The cyber-criminals behind this tend to demand payment through an untraceable digital currency such as Bitcoin which is a digital currency developed back in 2008.  Bitcoin exists completely online with no physical coins or notes, unregulated and untraceable making it popular with cyber-criminals. 

So it has become very apparent that worldwide, cyber-crime is now a real threat and is on the increase.

Ransomware first appeared on the scene in the media in 2012 and has slowly grown internationally in existence as far back as 2005.  Basically, it’s a form of malicious software where the victim’s data or files are hacked with the threat of being deleted or encrypted cutting off access to them or blocked by the anonymous hacker unless a ransom demand is paid with a set deadline. 

A Ransomware attack is usually carried out via a Trojan (see below).  The offending file is disguised as something else such as a link within an email or file and downloaded unsuspectingly by the victim from a fake email source or website.

Security experts advise there is no actual guarantee that paying the ransom will result in recovering the files or unencrypting them as the hackers are likely to just take the payment and not return the stolen data.

Ransomware is one of many forms of cyber-crime and there are plenty of others.

For clarity, here’s a summary to explain some of the terms used in the cyber-security world;

A computer virus is a malicious program spread by human intervention through a file or computer program from one computer to another.  A virus usually cannot infect a computer unless it has been ran or activated by someone (usually unknowingly).

A Worm is similar to a virus but can travel from computer to computer without human intervention, replicating itself and creating wider spread damage. 

A botnet is a type of ‘robot’ computer program that runs automatically and uses Internet Relay Chat (group discussion forums and chat rooms) to infect its victims with Trojans.  A mobile botnet targets mobile devices such as phones to gain access to the device and control its contents.

Trojans or Trojan Horses are also computer programs disguised as familiar software or applications intended to be destructive by introducing a virus or viruses to the victim’s device or network.

Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDOS) is an intentional flooding of a computer network where data is sent to a device or network simultaneously from multiple sources in order to overload and cripple it.   The sources generating the network traffic can be hundreds or thousands in number. 

Similar to DDOS, a Denial of Service (DoS) attack is when a single computer of source used to flood multiple targeted resources often on a global scale.

Staying Safe in the Online World

It’s not all doom and gloom but in a world of growing cyber-crime, it’s important to be aware, apply common sense and stay safe online.

There are some basic do’s and don'ts when it comes to protecting your PC/laptop/mobile devices from some of the nasties out there, with common sense being the most important.

  • Regularly back up important files to a separate source such as an external hard drive in addition to any cloud based storage
  • Regularly keep system updates current and updated
  • Protect your PC/laptop/mobile devices with anti-virus software
  • Don't open suspicious looking links or attachments in unsolicited emails or from social media
  • If a link within an email or social media post looks suspect, hover the mouse pointer over it which should display the source website or URL
  • If a link does not match a trusted website (e.g your bank or a trusted website), open a new browser session and log in independently rather than clicking on a dodgy looking link
  • Don’t open an email file attachment if it looks suspect or out of place 
  • Don’t input payment, PIN or card details requested via unsolicited emails
  • If in doubt, seek expert advice and guidance if something doesn't look right or you believe you have been subject to a cyber-crime attack


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KODI – A Guided Tour


It’s fair to say Kodi software has become very popular of late.  An open source media centre software previously called XBMC (X-box Media Centre).  First developed in 2002 and designed for use across multiple platform operating systems such as Windows, Mac, Linux, Android and iOS.  Primarily for streaming lawfully owned media such as video, music, podcasts and games streamed from the internet.

Over the past couple of years Kodi has become increasingly popular for home entertainment and evolved to provide a cheaper alternative to TV & film subscription packages with the big providers namely Sky, Virgin and Netflix.  The software is free and completely legal but has come under criticism since becoming known as a tool for accessing illegal or pirated content through third-party add-ons (an update designed to increase the software's capability).

Kodi can be used in a number of ways  - on a PC, laptop, Android phone, tablet or TV-streaming USB stick such as an 'Amazon Firestick'.  Not so straightforward on Apple devices (iPad and iPhone) which involves jail breaking (hacking) the device which isn’t advisable.  Another popular method is purchasing a set-top box which connects directly to the TV with the Kodi software pre-installed or to be added as you go.

The whole thing is highly customisable and the appearance of the interface screens can be personalised to suit.  Known as 'Skins' - colours, backgrounds, layout, menus can all be changed to suit the user's preferences.

Once installed, Kodi comes with a default skin which can then be changed.  


So listed below in no particular order are five of the best Kodi skins available to try out.  



Aeon Nox




There are thousands of add-ons out there designed to enhance the user experience for viewing, listening to music, gaming and so on.  The majority are free and legal.  Some are dodgy and vary in levels of quality.

One method for applying new add-ons is a program called 'Add-on Installer' used to apply or update the add-on to the software.  Installing add-ons in my opinion is not that straight forward a task for the novice user.  No doubt one day Kodi will evolve to a Plug and Play format where everything happens in the click of a button.


There is vast amounts of information on the web and ‘how to’ guides dedicated to Kodi.  Much more than can be covered in this post.

I found the Kodi Wiki to be quite intuitive and easy to follow.  It covers almost everything you need.


Here are some of the more popular Kodi add-ons currently available.

Again, note there are many more out there to choose from.


Currently the most popular giving free access to large amounts of content including live TV, movies and so on.  Available through Kodi’s add-on installer

UK Turks Playlists

Another popular add-on giving access to large amounts of classic TV shows, movies, cartoons, documentaries and adult content.  Available through Kodi’s add-on installer.


Similar to Exodus with more choice of streaming options.  Popular for the latest TV shows, live TV and movies.


An unofficial Kodi add-on but gives access to pretty much everything on YouTube.  Also available through Kodi’s add-on installer.

Disney Junior

Access to children’s TV shows and the like.

iPlayer WWW

Unofficial add-on for BBC iPlayer.  Gives access to all the regular catch up features and live BBC channels.


New in Kodi software version 0.17 and provides TV streaming much like it’s predecessor FILMON.  Tested in the US and only likely to be available in the UK using a VPN.


Another new add-on that allows streaming from different sources.  Also includes features for library integration of playlists on different devices.

Sports Devil

Live sports mainly from the US including NFL and NBA.

Maverick TV

Popular for streaming TV channels from around the world.  Previously called Joker TV.  Includes live sports, music channels and radio stations.

Apparently, using Kodi software to publicly show streamed movies, premium channels or pay-per-view sports events is illegal (e.g in a pub) because it involves money where the source is profiting from illegal content.  As a home user you're not actually breaking the law while streaming content and not actually downloading (saving it) to your device.  This is because online streaming creates a temporary or cached copy of the content without actually saving the data.  At least that’s what my research shows at the time of writing!

The Football Premier League issued a court order earlier this year to block illegal streaming of live football matches on Kodi.  It basically blocks the third-party add-ons from streaming the games making it more difficult to access them.  The court order affects the big ISPs (Internet Service Providers)  like Sky, BT, Virgin Media and TalkTalk who pay between them something in the region of £5 Billion for the rights to show live Premier League games.  A similar UK court order was enforced in 2013 against Peer-to-Peer sharing sites. 

More recently certain add-ons have become inaccessible or disappeared from Kodi menus.  This could well be the start of the some of the restrictions mentioned earlier.

Earlier this year, Kodi again came under criticism for supporting DRM (digital-rights management) which restricts viewing of copyrighted content.  For example, a DVD purchased on the high street would be protected by DRM.  Since Kodi is currently open-source software, it does not have DRM built in - but as it moves toward being more of a paid for TV streaming service e.g Netflix, it will need to have DRM tools for use on Android devices and Chrome web browsers.

When it comes to the legal issues, Kodi themselves haven’t done anything wrong so they are probably a bit miffed at the bad publicity around illegal streaming through 3rd party add-ons.  That said, they are no doubt glad of the increased publicity as Kodi rises in popularity.

Some of the popular Kodi 3rd party add-ons no longer working or becoming inaccessible is mainly down to internet restrictions on content by ISP's  (Internet Service Providers) blocking copyrighted content.  Users will always find a way around the system when it comes to free stuff.  One method is to install (and pay for) a VPN (virtual private network) which allows for internet access outside the control of the provider.  One for the slightly more advanced user or those keen to find a backdoor.

Streaming on-demand content (TV, movies, podcasts, music etc) is definitely on the increase and Kodi is built for that purpose.  It will be interesting to see how it develops and if it can maintain its popularity at the same time.


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Cloud Computing….What’s it all about then?

I first wrote this article in 2013.  It's basically my take on the concept of cloud computing and what it actually is.  It's a bit long but I hope you enjoy it.


Are we witnessing a boom industry without realizing it?  Quite possibly.  Cloud computing has over recent years become the next big thing, not only within the commercial IT industry but also for individual home use.  So what is it?  In essence cloud computing is the evolution of how IT services such as email, online services, applications and actual data are stored and handled via the internet.  As opposed to traditional computing methods such as storing data on hard drives and managing it on the customer’s premises or at home.  Outsourcing your IT on a pay-as-you-go basis where you are only charged for what you use could also be a close definition. 


The term cloud in IT terminology derives from the internet and the analogy of a big fluffy entity somewhere out there.  In this case, the internet being a network of servers in data centres all over the world is the platform or road that takes us to a hosted cloud environment. Bringing efficiency, security, convenience and cost saving benefits to businesses and home users.  Previously only large businesses were adopting cloud but more recently mid- sized organisations are getting onboard.


Individual users (you and I) are probably using cloud computing without realizing it: Social networking, email, music and video streaming over the internet, storing documents online, online banking, gaming and shopping. It is predicted that by 2020, 92% of our everyday online services will have moved to cloud computing in one way or another.


Mobile phone technology is another example where the services and applications within a smart phone aren’t always stored within the device itself but are out in the cloud being securely managed by the mobile phone provider while the user goes about their business and sleeps at night. 


Multimedia entertainment such as television, films, music and online gaming are moving toward the cloud based world where these services are streamed into our homes over an internet connection and accessed wirelessly.  Physical media such as DVD and CD are becoming a thing of the past.  Digital television in its High Definition or Standard Definition formats could well be replaced in time by Internet Television.  These days, accessing films and music via the internet on a pay-per-view/listen basis seems more favourable than a house full of disks.

If there is a technology band wagon to climb onto, the consumer world will no doubt do so.  The cloud band wagon moves on with companies popping up everywhere offering cloud based services.  Those with a keen eye for investment and innovation could make a lot of money if they act quickly before market saturation sets in.  In the business world in a climate where cost savings and making use of utilities for a cheaper price is top of the list of priorities, cloud computing looks like a saving grace.

So how does it all work?  There are various types of cloud model and how they are deployed depending on the business or consumer/individual user need.  There are three primary deployment models - public cloud, private cloud and hybrid cloud; 


Public cloud

The larger IT companies or service providers (Google, Amazon and Microsoft among others) offer private cloud services to either the general public or to businesses.  These services include anything from personal data storage to a complete hosted IT solution in a shared cloud environment.  One of the key points here is the importance of the customer’s data being kept secure and protected from unauthorized access or loss.  Microsoft are investing 90% of their research and development budget ($8.6billion) into their cloud computing technology.  Other business sectors such as Professional Services, Insurance and Transportation are investing heavily in cloud technologies at the moment.



Private cloud

A dedicated cloud solution dedicated to one customer or organisation.  This approach in a way mirrors IT services as they are today since the customer still pays for dedicated infrastructure such as servers and network hardware.  

Scalability and flexibility mean the customer has more control of their own resources and less dependency on individual IT departments.

In similar fashion, personal online data storage services are used day to day by the consumer - Google Drive, Dropbox, Mega, Apple iCloud and Amazon Cloud Drive to name but a few.  In fact, 50 million people currently use Dropbox to save around 1 million files every minute as well as 150 Million people use Apple’s iCloud who receive around 47000 app downloads every minute.



Hybrid cloud

This is a combination of the other cloud deployment models.  Where businesses, depending on customer need, use different elements of a private and public cloud solution.  For example, a mobile phone provider using public cloud for data storage also using a private cloud solution in the same data centre environment for handling of sensitive information such as customer details or billing.


Within the deployment models, there are different types of service depending on the customer requirement.  The primary types of cloud service being Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).  There are more but we will just concentrate of these three for now;



Software as a Service (SaaS) is based on making applications available to the customer from within the cloud.  By just using the internet web browser and not having to install programs or applications onto the customer’s PC, SaaS is the simplest and most direct type of cloud computing.  Web based technologies are fast developing.  Which means common Internet browsers such as Internet Explorer, Firefox and Crome are enabled to deliver rich content or media rather than simply taking the user to a webpage.  In order to open a media file such as a film clip, the user would have previously had to install or run a particular video player application.  Most of the news based website’s pages for example are equipped to play media clips, display photos and graphics just by clicking on the page.  These are also called Rich internet applications and are a type of SaaS.

Online Gaming, Google Docs and Dropbox are again examples of Saas. Google Docs offers a suite of office applications including word processing and spreadsheets.



Platform as a Service (PaaS) is the next level of cloud computing where operating systems are available to the customer and developers can create their own applications and manage them within their own environment or website.  Microsoft Windows Azure and Facebook are examples of PaaS.



Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) used by the large IT services providers giving the customer the ability to develop, run and manage their own applications or store vast amounts of data within a cloud environment.  A method called server virtualization is used where hardware is replicated within software making it more cost effective and providing more virtual space or data capacity than physical servers could provide.  Amazon Web Services (AWS) is an example of Iaas where the provider offers the service of running vast amounts of data across vast virtual and physical servers on behalf of the customer.

The benefits of cloud computing are its main selling point and the fact it takes us into a new world in technology.  The main benefit is lower cost for the customer where the services are delivered cheaper compared to previous methods of storage and management.  The customer would have paid for the hardware and software up front in the old world to the point they own it regardless of how much they utilize it.  In the new cloud world, maintenance and running costs are reduced significantly as the provider only charges on a utility basis. In the same way we are charged for electricity to our homes paying only for what we use. 


The option of scalability is another benefit in that the customer can increase or decrease their use or the amount of space they need.  The hassle of physically hosting and running hardware is removed and passed onto the service provider who can manage the cloud environment in a centralized way within their premises rather than the customer’s environment.  Since cloud computing is delivered via the internet, as long as the customer has a connection, they will be able to access their services from wherever they are.  Cloud could be seen overall as a much more efficient, cost effective, easily accessible and secure method than traditional methods of IT hosting.


The Security aspect can be seen as an advantage in that the services provided by the cloud environment are more secure than they would be if hosted at the customer premises or at home.  Within the cloud the provider offers the facility to back-up the data and keep it safe.  The fact that the road leading to a cloud environment is via internet could bring this into question.


 There are disadvantages to cloud computing that could out weigh the advantages at this early stage in the game.  After being on the scene for around five or six years, cloud is still in its infancy.  The two biggest disadvantages are its dependency on an internet connection as well as security of the data.  Since cloud environments are reached via the internet, if the connection is lost or even suffering from performance issues, access to the services is either delayed or lost altogether.  Those services could be business critical data, email or applications.  Or personal data such as family photos, music files etc.


Cloud providers are fully aware of this and eventhough measures are put in place to prevent loss of service or outages, things can still go wrong at times.  That said, cloud environments are built as resilient solutions which means if a man in a digger in the next street road works accidentally cuts through some underground cables cutting off the local telecoms exchange, then a back-up (resilient) circuit should ensure the connection is not lost and the business critical application such as payroll at the end of the month is still processed or a home user can continue to stream data using BBC iPlayer and not miss a second of East Enders.


Security will always be a hot topic where cloud computing is concerned.  With the data being out on the internet, it raises the question of how safe data is against malicious attack or loss.  Businesses pay more money for additional security and protection of data e.g. Government related or sensitive data.  There are all manner of security methods that can be put in place – encryption of data, firewalls, intrusion detection - the list goes on.


There are other considerations that relate more to the internet connection dependency such as performance where peak times of day will affect the connection hence having an impact on the service e.g. email at 9am when large numbers of people are logging on at work or when people surf during their lunch hour.  Again, businesses can pay more for higher internet bandwidth in the same way we can at home to get around such issues but like most things, the cost then starts to increase.



Cloud computing is an evolution in IT and offers increased efficiency, capacity, security and cost effectiveness via access from the Internet.  It allows businesses or individual users to no longer worry about investing in or running their own IT infrastructure.

So in summary..

On a personal level, am I ready to move my data to the cloud?  I would say yes and not from a jumping on the band-wagon point of view but from the point of view of convenience, confidence in the concept and the idea that it’s the direction we are heading in.  My tip for the day – keep an eye on what the big hitters in technology are doing.  In other words providers such as Google, Microsoft and Amazon (all doing ok financially when I last checked) are all fully integrated and onboard with the cloud.

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